Lamination is a plastic deformation process, which is carried out by means of the compression of the semi-finished product between two cylinders rotating in the opposite direction, which make it advance by friction, reducing its section and, if the cylinders are molded, making it assume the desired profile.
The tools used to transmit the pressures necessary to deform the material are normally cylindrical in shape, rotating around their axis, and are called rolling cylinders.
The cylinders are kept in working position inside a cage, consisting of a sturdy metal frame that provides two dividing pillars supporting the cylinders, moved by the transmission components that transmit the movement of electric motors and the drives for adjusting the distance between the cylinders. In the most recent configurations, two shafts are mounted on a single mast and rolling rings are inserted on these rotating supports, simplifying all the problems related to tooling and restoring the deformation machine.
The metal is deformed through the pressure of the rollers against the plate surface, which causes a tensional state of compression and a consequent reduction in height. This reduction, due to the constancy of the volume, in turn generates a widening and lengthening of the semi-finished product at every step.